Envy as a fragile Infant ego responding to a deprivation of some kind

            The best way to understand envy is to see it as the angry feeling the other person possesses, and is keeping it for himself. Also this other person is perceived as a reliable source of what one desires. The result is that this other person is seen as is keeping for themselves that thing “I want”.

            The envious impulse is to attack, or spoil the very source that one originally relied upon for what was desired. In the infant, the feeling of failed gratification is experienced as the breast withholding, or keeping for itself, the object of desire. Envy is therefore more basic than jealousy, and is one of the most primitive and fundamental of emotions. Envy stems from an immature intolerance of frustration. Melanie Klein found that the first object to be envied was the “breast”. This is the primary envy and if tolerated, and worked through, will lead to a normal development. But when the experience of envy is excessive (i.e. a failure in a good enough mothering) this can lead to a weakened ego. The mechanism of envy involves attacking the good “breast”, which results with introjections no longer occurring. In envy, there is an aim to possess the good object, but when this is felt to be impossible, the aim becomes a need to spoil the goodness of the object, in order to remove the source of envious feelings. Consequently, envy is the diabolical impulse to destroy the very source of goodness that maturation and growth will continue to require. Moreover, this primitive envy can be re-experienced in later childhood and adulthood as unconscious envy, and is likely to be revived in the therapeutic alliance as a negative transference.

Dangers of envy

            Defenses against envy that are unable to contain it will quickly lead to psychopathology, because they fail to prevent the destructive operation of envy, and its consequences in the weakening of the ego. Unresolved primary envy can lead to psychotic symptoms in the later life. Envy is commonly accompanied by self-pity, self-destructiveness, will turn inwards. The ego can implode and destroy itself. Suicidal feelings may be later expression of the early need to self destroy which the infant cannot express for itself.  The qualities that might manifest in the envious person are: persecution, frustration, guilt, self pity, idealization, acting out, ambition, inability to enjoy, disapproving, aggression, manic defenses, intolerance, hatred, destructiveness, self-destructiveness, sabotaging, discounting, suicidal ideation, etc.

 

Suggested reading:

Gericke, R. (2006). Working with a child’s envy in the transference. Journal Of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 18(2), 73-78

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Why is Nursing Going into Advanced Practice?

By 1980, the American Nurses Association has (ANA) has declared that “specialization in nursing is now clearly established and that specialization is a mark of the advancement of the nursing profession”. Advanced nursing practice has reached increasing levels of acceptance and demand, interprofessional conflicts increased, with medicine perceiving Clinical Nurse Managers (CNMs) as a competitive threat. According to Hamric (1989), the role of the Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNS) “originated for the purpose of improving the quality of nursing care provided to patients” the historical development of psychiatric CNSs is the oldest and one of the most highly developed CNS specialties. This growth in the psychiatric nursing body of knowledge provided the support for psychiatric nurses to begin exploring new leadership roles in the care of mental health clients in both inpatient and outpatient settings. The impressive development of the psychiatric CNS role helped initiate the growth of other CNS specialty areas.

As the number of Nurse Practitioners (NPs) is increasing in response to the increasing demand, and the NP role has attracted considerable attention from professional groups and policy makers. The Obama Administration’s records on supporting the nursing workforce has stated the following  “…With implementation of the law, we have new opportunities to move to a health care system that focuses on increased access to primary care, improved care coordination and an emphasis on prevention and wellness—efforts nurses have focused on from the beginning. This is what the future of health care looks like, and it makes the work and expertise of America’s nurses more important than ever.”

Advanced nursing practice includes specialization but goes beyond it. The skills we learn in a Masters Program function synergistically to produce a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. For the many reasons I chose to enroll in the Masters, is because I want to possess advanced health assessment, diagnostic, and clinical management skills that include pharmacological management. I want to feel more autonomous in my direct clinical practice. I have always been dedicated to coaching of patients, families and other health care providers, so, a masters in nursing will legitimize my professional attitude and practice. Another reason that is crucial for me is research, evidenced based practice is the golden frame for us; nurses, so research skills including, utilization, evaluation, and conduct are well taught and developed in the Masters program.

The common rule is that a Masters degree is inevitable for advanced practices nurses (APNs). The role of an APN, whether in primary care or acute care, makes a bigger difference because it challenges the status quo. The role is so expanded that includes, and is not limited to collaboration, leadership, management, and ethical decision-making. 

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: Alcohol Use Disorder – DSM-5

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Alcohol use has never been a topic that lends itself naturally to sober, intellectual discourse. This is hardly surprising, really, given that what’s at stake is nothing less than our lives. Below I am going to mention co-morbidities associated with alcohol use disorder and the criteria of the DSM-5 for the diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD).

AUD is associated with psychotic disorders, bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunctions, delirium, and neurocognitive disorders. The onset of these co-morbidities can be during intoxication and/or withdrawal.

It is worth noting that the word “addiction” is not mentioned in the DSM-5, however, it is in common usage in many countries and disciplines to describe severe problems related to compulsive and habitual use of substances.

The following are the diagnostic criteria for AUD:

A problematic patter of alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Alcohol is often taken in large amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use.
3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain alcohol, use alcohol, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use alcohol.
5. Recurrent alcohol use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued alcohol use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of alcohol.
7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of alcohol use.
8. Recurrent alcohol use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by alcohol.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve desired effect.
b. A markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
a. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol.
b. Alcohol is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Stay sober and watch out for the people you love for any signs of alcohol addiction, and most importantly Never Ever Drink and Drive.

Most New Teachers Feel Unprepared to Help Students Deal With Mental Health Problems

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  • Toronto district school board found stress and anxiety to be the most prevalent emotional issues among students
  • More than 100,000 students and 75 secondary school teachers
  • 92% of teachers reported that they had students struggling with mental issues
  • 97.4% of them agreed or strongly agreed that it was part of their job
  • 93.3% felt that their education training did not qualify them for dealing with mental health issues

 

Prevalence of Emotional Issues Among Students of Toronto 

                                                        Grade 7-8                                      Grade  9-12
Positive feelings
Feel good about yourself 80% 70%
Feel reasonably happy 78% 67%
Able to enjoy daily activities 76% 64%
Hopeful about the future 72% 62%
Like the way you look 67% 58%
Physical symptoms
Tired for no reason 58% 76%
Difficulty concentrating 56% 76%
Difficulty making decisions 56% 72%
Losing sleep bcz of worry 38% 57%
Doesnt overcomedifficulties 31% 47%
Feel like crying 21% 29%
Emotional challenges
Feel lonely 29% 43%
Feel down 32% 48%
Losing confidence 32% 48%
Under a lot of stress 40% 66%
Feel nervous/anxious 63% 72%

 

Action Plan:

1- Raising awareness about mental health issues (e. g., teen suicide, and bullying)

2- Providing resources to help students with mental health problems

3- Addressing the need of bachelor programs of student teachers to have a more thorough understanding of mental illness and its consequences

 

References

Sarah, B. (2013). Most new teachers feel unprepared to help students deal with mental health   problems: study. National Post. Retrieved from   http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/06/02/teachers-feel-
unprepared-to-help-students-
  deal-with-mental-health-issues/